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Daf 15

1) When Yom Tov falls out on Friday, you need to make an Eiruv Tavshilin before Yom Tov to cook on Yom Tov for Shabbos. Rava explains: to make sure that you'll designate good portions for Shabbos, so that you shouldn't eat everything on Yom Tov. Therefore, you make an Eiruv to remind you to leave over for Shabbos. They didn't allow you to make it on Yom Tov morning before the meal since he might be negligent and not make it since he's busy preparing the meal.

2) R' Ashi says the reason: in order to remind people not to cook from Yom Tov for a weekday. As people will say; if I can't just start cooking from Yom Tov to Shabbos (but only finish the cooking from Erev Yom Tov), of course I can't cook from Yom Tov to the weekday.

3) There's a Mitzvah to send portions of food to people who hadn't made an Eiruv. However, some say that it's only if he didn't make it because of some Onnes, but not someone who should have made one, but didn't.

4) In order to reconcile two P'sukim that one said that Yom Tov is for you, and the other says it's for Hashem; R' Eliezer says; you have the choice for Yom Tov to be completely for you, or completely for Hashem. Either you eat and drink the whole day, or sit and learn the whole day.[Tosfos says: however, he admits that, when it's time to eat, i.e., you eat at this time during the week, that you should eat fatty foods and drink sweet drinks for the honor of the Yom Tov.] However, R' Yehoshua says that you should have half the day for you and half the day for Hashem.

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5) Someone's profit for the year is set from Rosh Hashana, (and one should be careful to not spend that much since it might be more than he's allotted.) The exception is what he spends for Shabbos and Yom Tov, and to educate his sons in Torah. Therefore, if he spends more for them, he'll be allotted more. If he spends less, he'll be allotted less.

6) If someone gives a friend a gift (when it's not obvious), he needs to inform his friend that he gave it, unless it's something that will be eventually revealed.

7) You need a stew and not bread. Some say the reason; since you need something that's not so common, and this would include hot cereal that's not as common as bread. Others say the reason since you need something that's eaten with bread, and this would exclude the cereal since it's not eaten with bread.

8) You can rely on lentils at the bottom of the pot as an Eiruv, as long as you can scrape together a Kezayis. The same applies to fats that stuck to a knife, but only if you can scrape off a Kezayis.

9) Small salted fish doesn't have a problem of Bishul Akum (since it's edible raw by being salted); and you can rely on it for an Eiruv Tavshilim. [Tosfos explains: they can't be too small or else it wouldn't have a problem of Bishul Akum even without being salted since it's not brought to a king's table to eat bread.]

10) However, the dish 'Kisa D'harsina,' (fish fat with flour), has a problem of Bishul Akum, since the fat isn't the main ingredient, but the flour is. Therefore, you can't make an Eiruv with it.

11) A Kezayis is good enough for as many people you make the Eiruv for. [Tosfos explains the rules for various Eiruvs: an Eiruv Techumim needs to consist of food for two meals for each person. An Eiruv Chatzeiros needs a dried fig's worth of bread for each person until it gets to the amount for two meals, and then that's enough for no matter how many people. However, for the Eiruv Tavshilin, a Kezayis works for any amount of people.]

12) [Tosfos says: from here, it seems that we can buy bread from a non-Jew. After all, it's not a problem because of the flour, since they permitted their breads. It's not a problem of Bishul Akum on the eggs mixed in the dough since the flour is the main ingredient. You don't need to worry about eggs from non-Kosher birds since they're not common among us. We don't need to worry that they had blood, since the majority of eggs don't have blood. It's only a stringency that we check the eggs. Nor do we need to worry that it came from a Treifa or Neveila, since we can follow the majority that most eggs don't have such problems. (Although we can't buy from them a scrambled egg in a dish because of the problem that it might have come from a Treifa, that's because it has something strange that it's not a whole eggs, so we need to worry that a Jew sold him the egg scrambled because it had a problem. However, here there is nothing strange to tell us that it's not like the majority of eggs.)]

13) [Tosfos adds: however, if the non-Jew bakes a dough with fish in the middle, it's forbidden even when you remove the fish. After all, the fish became rabbinically forbidden and the dough absorbed some of the fats that came out of it. However, some permit it (if you remove all external fat).]

14) [Tosfos says: a baked good called Niylush has a problem of Bishul Akum since it's not really bread since you don't make Hamoitzie on it. However. R' Yechiel permits since it's baked like bread, and also, if you establish your meal on it, you'll make Hamoitzie.]

15) An Eiruv Tavshilin needs the intent of the one who places it that it should be an Eiruv, but you don't need the others who he made it for to have intent to be Yoitza with the Eiruv.

16) If he places it for anyone who didn't make his own Eiruv, it helps for anyone in the T'chum. [Rashi says: we assume that he doesn't have in mind for those who live outside his T'chum.]

17) There was this blind man that forgot to make an Eiruv, and Shmuel told him to rely on his Eiruv that he placed for everyone who forgot. However, next year, he forgot again, and Shmuel says that it shows that he's negligent and can't rely on his Eiruv.

18) If you have a Yom Tov before Shabbos, you definitely can't make an Eiruv T'chumim on Yom Tov for Shabbos. However, regarding Eiruv Chatzeiros, the Rabanan forbid and Rebbi allows. Rebbi held: since you can carry on Yom Tov, you're allowed to make an Eiruv for it that day. [Tosfos says: although, usually, Rebbi holds that Yom Tov and Shabbos next to each other is one Kedusha, that's only regarding Eiruv T'chumim and Halachos that they have the same Din, but not regarding carrying, since it's permitted on Yom Tov.] Rav Paskins like the Rabanan and Shmuel Paskins like Rebbi.

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19) When Shabbos falls out on Yom Tov; Beis Shammai says to make an eight Bracha Davening, and have a Bracha for Shabbos by itself and for Yom Tov by itself. Beis Hillel says to make seven Brachos, the middle one starts with Shabbos and ends with Shabbos, and mentions Yom Tov in the middle. However, Rebbi says that you should end with “Mekadesh Hashabbos V'Yisrael V'Hazmanim.” However, you don't mention the Kedusha of Yisrael before Shabbos since the Jews don't make Shabbos Kodesh in the same vein that they cause the time of the Kedusha of Yom Tov by establishing the time for the months, since Shabbos's Kedusha comes by itself. The Halacha is like Rebbi.

20) Shabbos that falls out on Rosh Chodesh, or Chol Hamoed; for Shachris Mincha and Maariv, they Daven regular Shabbos Davening and add Yaaleh V'yavo in Ritzei. If you forget it, you need to go back to say it. R' Eliezer held that you should say it in Modim.

21) For Musaf, the Tanna Kama says: one starts with Shabbos and ends with Shabbos, and mentions the other day in the middle. R' Shimon b. Gamliel and R' Yishmael the son of R' Yochanan b. Broka say that you do that for Shachris Mincha and Maariv too.

22) The Halacha is not like that set of Tannaim [Tosfos says: and not even like the Tanna Kama since we Paskin by Musaf like Rebbi that we mention Yom Tov or Rosh Chodesh in the ending of the Bracha too.]

23) R' Chiya b. Ashi permits (by a two day Yom Tov before Shabbos) to place an Eiruv T'chumim and make a condition on each day that, if today's Yom Tov, it's nothing, but if today's the real weekday, I'm making it as an Eiruv for Shabbos. Of course he'll agree you can make a similar condition on the first day for an Eiruv Tavshilin.. However, Rava only allows it for an Eiruv Tavshilin, but not for an Eiruv T'chumim since you can't make an acquisition of the place that you'll rest on Shabbos or Yom Tov. [Tosfos says: since you're preparing this acquisition from Yom Tov to Shabbos. Rashi says: but you may place an Eiruv Tavshlin since it's for the honor of Shabbos.]

24) [Tosfos says: although we see that R' Yochanan doesn't hold of the prohibition of preparation from one day to another, as we see in the beginning of the Mesechta, that's only regarding an egg that's laid by itself, but you may not prepare food manually.]

25) You can't cook from one day of Yom Tov to another. However, a woman can fill up a whole pot of meat even though she only needs some of the meat, and a baker can fill up a whole barrel of water to cook even if he doesn't need all of it, since it's all one bother of putting it on the stove. However, you can't make more loaves of bread than needed since each loaf is an extra bother. R' Shimon b. Elazar permits it by bread too, since the bread bakes better (i.e., more evenly), when the oven is full. The Halacha is like him.

26) Whoever didn't make an Eiruv Tavshilin, he's forbidden to bake, and his flour is forbidden to be baked. Therefore, in order to get others to bake it, he needs to gift it to another person who made an Eiruv to cook for him. [Tosfos text is “but his flour is not forbidden.” Therefore, that's why it helps to gift over the flour. However, if the flour would be forbidden, then it wouldn't help to gift it over, since the flour will remain with the prohibition. Also, even if the flour is permitted, the owner can't ask someone to cook it since he can't ask someone to do something for him that he himself can't do.]

27) We have an unresolved inquiry whether, if someone who didn't make an Eiruv and transgressed cooking, is the food permitted or not?

28) Although we have a Braisa to forbid the food when someone without an Eiruv makes a trick and cooked extra on Yom Tov for Shabbos as if he's cooking for Yom Tov, (in a second pot, since he's allowed to cook everything in one pot); R' Ashi answers: that could be since we're more stringent by a trick than if someone does it openly on purpose. [Tosfos explains: this is not similar to what R' Ada allowed a trick and salted many pieces after each other and claiming that he decided he wants the present piece for today; that's because there is no other way to preserve the meat, and if we forbid it completely, he'll refrain from Simchas Yom Tov. This is not similar to our Gemara since there is a solution to remember to make an Eiruv Tavshilin. Alternatively, there, it's only preserving food which is very lenient (since it's not a real Melacha), but cooking, which is a Melacha, is stricter.]

29) R' Nachman b. Yitzchok answers: really, tricks are not more stricter than transgressing on purpose. However, this Braisa that forbids tricks could be like Chananya quoting Beis Shammai that holds that you can't cook unless you make an Eiruv out of a cooked item. You can't bake unless you make an Eiruv out of a baked item. You can't insulate unless you make an Eiruv out of an insulated item. (Beis Hillel says your covered with a cooked item for everything.) Therefore, just as he's stricter regarding Eiruv Tavshilin, he'll be stricter to forbid the food. Therefore, it's no proof to us.

30) Although we forbid the food if someone takes off Maasar from fruit; that refers to a case where they have other fruit, but here he doesn't have any other food to eat.

31) This is also not like we forbid using a utensil that he purposely Toiveled on Yom Tov since that refers to a case where he has other utensils, or that he can borrow other utensils.

32) This is also not like we forbid the food cooked purposely on Shabbos, since that's a Melacha from the Torah, and it's no proof for cooking from Yom Tov to Shabbos that’s only rabbinically forbidden.

33) Our Mishna says that Beis Shammai holds that you need two types of cooked items for an Eiruv, and Beis Hillel says that you only need one. However, Beis Shammai agrees that, if you have a fish baste in egg, it's considered as two items. R' Shimon b. Elazar says: they both agree that you need two cooked items. Beis Hillel only argues when you have the fish stuffed with egg or with minced leek. They consider it as two cooked items, and Beis Shammai says that it's only like one.

34) Rava says that the Halacha is like Beis Hillel like our Mishna. [Tosfos says: R' Tam Paskins that you also need bread, like R' Eliezer said earlier; you can't cook without a cooked item, and you can't bake without a baked item. Although Beis Hillel says that you only need one cooked item for everything, that's to permit all types of cooked items, even to insulate them. Although Abaya says earlier that you can only have a cooked item and not bread, that refers to someone who doesn't need to bake for Shabbos. However, the Ri argues and holds that Beis Hillel permits baking with a cooked item. He doesn't Paskin like R' Eliezer since he's a student of Beis Shammai. Also, we see in the Yerushalmi that R' Yehoshua argues with him. However, the Ri didn't actively went against his uncle's P'sak and required a cooked item and bread. This is the world's custom.]

35) If the Eiruv gets lost or eaten, you can't cook afterwards. However, if you already started making a dough before the Eiruv got lost, you can finish baking the bread.

36) Beis Shammai forbids all Teveilos on Shabbos and Yom Tov, and Beis Hillel allows humans to Toivel, but doesn't allow Toiveling utensils.

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37) The reason why they forbade Toiveling utensils on Shabbos; Rabbah explains; you might carry it to the Mikvah, and you'll come to carry it four Amos in the Reshus Harabim. [Tosfos says: the reason they picked carrying it four Amos in the Reshus Harabim instead of saying that you'll carry out from a Reshus Hayachid to a Reshus Harabim, since it's not so apt to decree for carrying out, since the door frame and walls serve as a distinction to remind you not to carry out.] It's forbidden to Toivel in a well in your backyard since you might Toivel it in a well in the Reshus Harabim. You can't Toivel it on Yom Tov since you might come to Toivel it on Shabbos. [Tosfos says: this is not a double Gezeira (Yom Tov in your backyard because of Shabbos, and Shabbos is forbidden since you might Toivel in the street); since Shabbos and Yom Tov are considered as one entity.]

38) Although we allow dipping Tamai water in a stone utensil (that can't become Tamai) in a Mikvah to make the water Tahor again and we don't decree to forbid it since, if he had other water, he'll drink that and doesn't need to dip the water. If he doesn't, he would be very careful to make sure it doesn't become Tamai, and if it does, it's an uncommon occurrence, which the rabbis never decreed to forbid. [Tosfos says: they didn't decree to forbid dipping the water since you might come to carry the water in the street, since people are not usually desperate for them like they are for utensils, since they can usually find other water.]

39) Although we permit drawing water with a Tamai pail to make it Tahor; since they only permit it through drawing water, he'll remember not to carry. (However, they didn't permit Toiveling a Tamai utensil with Tamai water in it, since it already has water in it and you don't need to draw it, it's obvious that you're Toiveling it.)

40) The reason we allow Toiveling a utensil that became Tamai on Yom Tov, since everyone needs to make himself Tahor for Yom Tov, they're really careful not to become Tamai on Yom Tov, so it's not common for utensils to become Tamai then, so they don't decree to forbid by uncommon situations. [Tosfos says: they also didn't decree here that you might come to carry the water in the street since people are not usually desperate for them like they are for utensils, since they can usually find other water.]

41) Although we permit to Toivel a utensil that became Tamai from a Rishon (i.e., even if it became Tamai from before Yom Tov, as we already said that you can Toivel it if it became Tamai on Yom Tov even from an Av Hatumah); that's because it's only practically Tamai for a Kohein since a Sheini can become a Shlishi by Trumah. [Tosfos says: this is only if it has holes in it and can't hold liquids, since anything that can make Trumah Tamai makes liquids into a Rishon.] Since they're zealous, they're careful not to become Tamai. Since it's not common, they don't decree to forbid by uncommon situations. [Tosfos explains: this could be used on Yom Tov for Trumah, although regular utensils need to have the day pass after Teveila before they're Tahor for Trumah, but for this rabbinic Tumah, they didn't decree to need it to pass the day.]

42) A woman who doesn't have clothes to wear can make a trick and be Toivel in her clothing. [Tosfos says: this is not a problem of laundering on Yom Tov despite that we say that soaking clothes is laundering; since it's done in a way that dirties the clothes. This is similar to the Heter to wipe your hands on a towel.] After all, since we only allow this Teviela when she wears it, the Chachumim didn't decree against it.

43) R' Yosef says: the reason you can't Toivel utensils on Shabbos is; because, if it's made out of material, you might come to squeeze it out. They even forbade utensils that can't be squeezed since you might come to Toivel utensils that could be squeezed.

44) R' Bibi b. Abaya says: we forbade it since you might leave the Teveila of those utensils until Yom Tov when you have more time, and it will lead to stumbling by having these Tamai utensils around, that you might forgetfully put Trumah into them. [Tosfos says: but you don't need to worry about that by a human, since he won't push off his personal Teveila that long. Also, it's not so apt that it will lead to stumbling (since he's always aware of his own status).]

45) Rava says: the reason they forbade Toiveling since it looks as if you're fixing your utensil. However, they allowed it by a person since, in the summer, it looks as if he's just trying to cool himself off, and in the winter, he might be washing himself from the mud. This is even allowed in smelly waters, and we don't say it's obvious that he wants to Toivel.

46) However, they even allowed you to Toivel on Yom Kippur, although you're forbidden to cool off in water. We say: once they permitted it for Shabbos, they permitted it for Yom Kippur too. [Tosfos says: this Heter was only said according to those who hold that it's a special Mitzvah to Toivel on the first eligible day, but we don't hold that there is such a Mitzvah, (as our women only Toivel at the end of seven clean days for, perhaps, they're a Zavah, and ignore the Mikvah after seven regular days, which they would need to Toivel if they were a Nidah); and it's forbidden to Toivel on Yom Kippur and Tisha B'av. However, we could be lenient for those who are careful to keep Taharos, or to Daven in Tahara from Keri. Otherwise, it's forbidden. Therefore, we, who only Toivel to permit a woman to her husband, and she's anyhow forbidden to her husband on Yom Kippur and Tisha B'av. Therefore, she should wash herself on Erev Yom Kippur, and comb her hair and wash a little Moitzie Yom Kippur before she Toivels. However, you shouldn't Toivel at all on Tisha B'av, as we say “Hashem's house is good enough (to mourn over) to cancel one Teveila a year.”]

47) Rebbi held that you're allowed to make water Tahor by dipping it in the Mikva in a stone utensil on Yom Tov, but you can't Toivel a Tamai utensil with its Tamai water. On Shabbos, you can't even dip the water. However, the Rabanan allow dipping the water in a stone utensil on Shabbos, and permits Toiveling a Tamai utensil with its Tamai water on Yom Tov.

48) [Tosfos says: we only allow it in a stone utensil that's not susceptible to Tumah, but not in a wooden utensil. Although Rebbi only permits this on Yom Tov, and it will be a utensil that became Tamai on Yom Tov, and it's also became Tamai through a Rishon, which we allow Toiveling on Yom Tov even with only one of these variables; however, we don't allow him to make the utensil Tamai on purpose so that he can Toivel it on Yom Tov.]

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49) The Tanna Kama says: if a utensil gets Tamai Erev Yom Tov, he can't Toivel it Bein Hashmashes going into Yom Tov, but he can Toivel it Bein Hashmashes during the week. However, R' Shimon Shezuri forbids it during the week since it needs to have a night after the Teveila (and it could have been already night, and it won't be Tahor until the next night). The rabbis in Rav's Beis Medrish explain the argument; we refer to a case where he's running before night to Toivel. The Tanna Kama held that his running makes it obvious that he knows of the Halacha of having a night after the Teveila, since he's running there to have it Toiveled before night. Therefore, if he misses night, we allow him to Toivel since he knows that he needs to wait until tomorrow night for it to be Tahor. However, R' Shimon holds that the running doesn't prove anything, since he might be running to go back to his work.. Therefore, we shouldn't allow him to Toivel Bein Hashmashes.

Rava explains: everybody is not worried that the average man doesn't know about passing a nightfall after Teveila. However, we refer to a person who asked if he was Tamai by touching a Sheretz less than the size of a lentil. R' Shimon holds: we need to worry that, the same way he doesn't know the size of a Sheretz that makes him Tamai, we need to worry that he also doesn't know that you need to have a night after the Teveila. However, the Chachumim held that, just because he's not aware about a Halacha that's not written explicitly in the Torah, we don't need to worry that he doesn't know about those that are written explicitly in the Torah.

50) We allow Teveila on Shabbos that is not really necessary, but it's a stringency. For example; if you already Toiveled your utensils in order to press your olives, and you changed your mind to use them for pressing your grapes, or vice versa, you can Toivel again for the new purpose on Yom Tov. Also, if you Toiveled your utensils to be part of one group for a Korban Pesach, and you changed groups, you can Toivel again on Shabbos for the intent of the new group. After all, in both cases, they were already Toiveled.

51) Everyone agrees that you bring the Chagiga on Yom Tov. However, Beis Shammai says that you can't do Smicha to it on Yom Tov, (but you do it Erev Yom Tov), and Beis Hillel says that you could do it on Yom Tov. They both agree that you can't bring voluntary Olos on Yom Tov. However, Beis Shammai also disallows the Olas Riya, and Beis Hillel allows bringing it. Beis Shammai forbids bringing voluntary Shlomim. There is a Tannaic argument whether Beis Hillel argues with Beis Shammai and allows voluntary Shlomim, or does he agree that it's forbidden.

52) Regarding Baal Taachar; the Tanna Kama says that he transgresses it if he passes three Regalim without bringing the Korban regardless of the order. R' Shimon holds that he only transgresses if it passes through the order of the Pasuk, Pesach, Shvuos and Sukkos. R' Shimon b. Elazar says that Sukkos is the cause of the transgression no matter if it's the first Regel or the third one.

53) He's not Yoitza his Chagiga if he brings a Korban Todah, since he can only bring his obligations from Chulin. This is even true if he separates the Todah on condition that it should go for his Chagiga. Rather, the Todah is Kodesh and he needs to bring another Chagiga. The same applies when someone vows he'll be a Nazir if he can bring his Korbanos from Maasar Sheini money, he's a Nazir and he needs to pay for his Korbanos from Chulin money. [Rashi explains: when he begins saying; “this should be a Todah,” it takes effect right away, since promising something to Hekdesh is like an acquisition by mortals. Similarly, when he vows to be a Nazir, the vow takes effect right away. Therefore, when he concludes his statement that it's on a certain condition, it's inconsequential. Tosfos explains: therefore, this is only when he says “this shall be a Todah” or “I'm a Nazir” first. However, if he says “on condition that it's a Chagiga, this is a Todah,” the Kedusha doesn't take effect since it's only done on condition to be a Chagiga, which it can't be; as we'll say similarly in the next Gemara.]

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54) Similarly, if someone commands at his death “Ploni should receive four hundred Zuz and marry my daughter,” he receives the money without marrying the daughter. However, if he says “marry my daughter and take four hundred Zuz,” he only receives the money if he marries the daughter.

55) That, which Beis Shammai held that you don't do Smicha on Yom Tov, there is a Tannaic argument if the reason for Beis Shammai is because he doesn't need the Smicha done right before the Shechita, and he could do it the day before; or that he totally holds that obligatory Shlomim don't need Smicha.

56) Beis Hillel holds that you need Smicha for all Shlomim and Olos, whether voluntary or obligatory.

57) Beis Shammai Darshens (about doing food-preparing Melachos) “it should be for you,” excluding for Hashem. Therefore, you can't bring an Olas Riya on Yom Tov. However, Beis Hillel says that it only excludes doing these Melachos for a non-Jew or for dogs [Tosfos adds: and even for Hashem if it doesn't have a set time to bring, like voluntary Korbanos]. However, he can bring an Olas Riya since the Pasuk includes it by the words “all for Hashem.”

58) According to the opinion that you can bring voluntary Korbanos on Yom Tov, it's not only a rabbinical decree so that you shouldn't push off bringing it until Yom Tov, and something might prevent you from bringing it then and he'll transgress Baal Tacher. Rather, it's forbidden from the Torah. As we see that the baking of the Shtei Halechem doesn't supersede Yom Tov even though it can't be delayed, since it has a set time to bring it. Rather, it doesn't supersede Yom Tov since you could bake it from the day before.

59) According to the opinions that you can't bring a voluntary Shlomim on Yom Tov; if you B'dieved Shechted it; if it still has meat to eat, you may sprinkle the blood to permit eating it [Tosfos: since it's included in permitting preparing for food. Although you can't eat the meat until you burn the limbs on the Mizbeach, which you can't do until nightfall; but here it's permitted since you can't burn it on Yom Tov, it's as if the limbs got lost that you can eat the meat.] However, if the meat was lost or became Tamai; Rava says that it's a rabbinical prohibition to sprinkle the blood in order that you can burn the limbs after Yom Tov on the Mizbeach. Rabbah b R' Huna says that you may sprinkle the blood.

60) We have a Braisa that you can't sprinkle the blood on Shabbos so that you can burn the limbs at night. Either it's a disproof to Rabbah b. R' Yehoshua, or we can say that we're more strict on Shabbos than on Yom Tov.

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61) If a Jew and non-Jew are partnered in an animal; you may Shecht it on Yom Tov, even though part of it is for the non-Jew; since you can't have a Kezayis of meat without doing the Shechita. Although we said that you can't bring a voluntary Shlomim on Yom Tov although you'll eat part of it; that's because it's mainly brought for Hashem, and the Kohanim who will eat from it only receive their portions from Hashem's table. [Tosfos says: this is even according to R' Yossi Haglili who says that their portion is considered as the Kohanim's money that they can even give it to a woman for Kiddushin; that's because they received that money from Hashem's table.]

62) Although we allow Shechting an animal that a non-Jew has a portion in since you can't have a Kezayis of meat without doing the Shechita; but you can't bake the whole dough that a non-Jew has a portion in since he could separate his portion and bake half the dough. [Tosfos says: although R' Shimon b. Elazar says that a woman can fill a whole oven with loaves of bread even if she only needs one of them since the bread bakes better when the oven is full; that's only when the dough is owned only by a Jew. After all, he can eat any loaf he wants, so they're all fit for him. Also, guest might show up that he can feed them the extra loaves. However, when the other half belongs to the non-Jew, he's baking that half exclusively for the non-Jew.]

63) If someone bakes from Yom Tov for the weekday; R' Chisda says he gets Malkos since we don't say that it's like it's done for Yom Tov since you can feed it to guests that show up. However, Rabbah holds he doesn't get Malkos for that reason. [Tosfos says: although the Gemara in Shabbos says that, if someone takes down a honeycomb on Yom Tov he gets Malkos and we don't say that it's permitted since he can feed it to guests if they show up; we refer to a case where the honey soured and it's not fit for human consumption, but it's only needed to treat wounds on camels. Alternatively, it refers to a case that it's so close to night that he couldn't possibly feed it to guests even if they show up right away.]

64) That, which we allow to bake a dough for a dog when the shepherd shares with him (although he intends to feed it to the dog) according to R' Chisda (who can't answer that he can keep the bread for himself if he happens upon Neveila to give to the dog); we must say that the shepherd actually has Neveila that he can feed the dog and could eat the whole loaf for himself.

65) R' Huna says: if the king commands some villagers to bake for his army on Yom Tov; it's forbidden unless they don't care if you give a little bit from it to a child. [Rashi says: this argues with what we forbid earlier to bake all the dough that you have a partnership with a non-Jew since you can split it. However, Tosfos disagrees. After all, you can't just take off the piece of dough for the child and bake it since they definitely care that you shouldn't take any unless you bake for the army. Only then they don't care if you take a piece just like it's usual for a chef or baker to eat a little from what he made.]

66) R' Yossi Haglili says: it's forbidden to cook for dogs on Yom Tov since he Darshens “for you” and not for your dogs. However, R' Akiva allows since he only Darshens “for you” and not for non-Jews. However, dogs are included in 'food for a Nefesh.' So, we only exclude a non-Jew that's not upon you to feed, but not dogs that they're upon you to feed. [Tosfos says that we Paskin like R' Yossi Haglili since we have an unnamed Mishna like him, that we only allow to bake for dogs if the shepherd shares the bread with them.]

67) The Gemara asks: according to the opinion that you can't cook for dogs; why do we allow bringing date-pits to feed to animals on Yom Tov? [Tosfos explains: since it's hardly edible for the animals unless you do some fix, like cutting it up and softening them, which are rabbinical Melachos. Therefore, according to those who allow Melacha for them, then we can understand why they're not Muktza. However, according to those who hold that you can't do those Melachos, why isn't it Muktza?] The Gemara answers: since it's fit to be used as fuel. Even if they're still fresh and moist, you can use it for fuel in a large bonfire. However, on Shabbos, when you can't use it for fuel, you can only move it with carrying it along with some non-Muktza item, like a loaf or a child. [Tosfos says: although they don't allow this Heter, i.e., to carry Muktza with a loaf or child, but by a corpse; here is different since you can't remove it on Friday, since it was in middle of the date at the time.]

68) R' Huna's above statement, that you're permitted to bake the army's flour if you can give something to a child, argues with R' Yehoshua b. Levi who says that it's forbidden to invite a non-Jew on Yom Tov since you might add cooking for them. However, it's permitted on Shabbos since you're not cooking anyhow. (See Marsha that this might not be the right text according to Tosfos who says earlier that R' Huna only permits when you can't take yourself before you bake for the non-Jew, so he doesn't argue with R' Yehoshua b. Levi.)

69) R' Acha b. Yaakov forbade even on Shabbos since he'll have leftover wine in his cup, which would be Muktza since it's forbidden to have pleasure from. (This is not like our leftovers, although it's no longer drinkable to us, but you can feed them to your chickens.) We don't allow carrying the leftover wine through the non-Muktza cup the same way we allow moving an incense-shovel that still has broken pieces of wood in it. [Tosfos explains the comparison: although the case of the shovel also contains non-Muktza, i.e., the ash; but that's not a reason to allow carrying more since it doesn't make the shovel Bosis to the wood. After all, it's not going to be Bosis to such small and insignificant items like small pieces of wood and leftover wine. Rather, it's the reason why we don't require you to dump out the pieces of wood before you carry the shovel, since you would need to dump the ash too. However, here, we don't need to dump out the wine before moving the cup since it would cause a mess. Alternatively, the leftover wine is so lowly that it's completely Batul to the cup even without having a non-Muktza item inside it.] The reason it's not comparable: since it's forbidden to have pleasure from the non-Jew's wine, it's extra Muktza. You can't just sit next to his leftover wine, which would make it disgusting to you, which they allow moving Muktza like they allow moving a chamberpot. After all, they don't allow you L'chatchila making something to be like a chamberpot.

70) Mareimar and Mar Zutra told non-Jews that came over on Yom Tov; if your satisfied with what we already made, fine. If not, don't come since we're not going to make anything for you.

71) Beis Shammai says: you can't cook up water for your feet unless it's fit to drink. [Tosfos says: really, Beis Shammai doesn't allow this since he doesn't hold of the concept that once you can do Melacha for food preparation, you can do it even if it's not for food preparation. Rather, it means; if you cook up water to drink, you can add water for washing. This is also how the Yershalmi explains it.] Beis Hillel permits it. [Tosfos says: they only allow heating up water to wash your hands and feet, but not your whole body since it's not something that's appreciated by all people.]

72) Beis Shammai forbids to make a bonfire on Yom Tov even to warm your bodies, since he doesn't hold of the concept that once you can do Melacha for food preparation, you can do it even if it's not for food preparation, even when your whole body gets pleasure from it [Rashi: and is more similar to eating than washing your hands and feet]. However, Beis Hillel permits.

73) Beis Shammai says that you can't insulate hot water on Yom Tov for Shabbos, and Beis Hillel permits. R' Huna establishes the case when he forgot to make an Eiruv. Beis Hillel holds like those who hold that he can do the minimum for Shabbos. He can bake one loaf, cook one stew, light one lamp and cook one kettle of water. Some say that he can also roast a small fish. [Tosfos says: from here it implies that, when you make the Bracha on the Eiruv, you need to say that it's to permit lighting candles. If you don't, you can only light one lamp.]

Daf 22

74) Abaya establishes the case: he only made an Eiruv from a cooked item, and not with an insulated item. Beis Shammai holds like Chananya quoting them that holds that you can't cook unless you make an Eiruv out of a cooked item. You can't bake unless you make an Eiruv out of a baked item. You can't insulate unless you make an Eiruv out of an insulated item. However, if he did use an insulated item as an Eiruv, he could insulate for Shabbos even though it's obvious that it's for Shabbos, (although it's not like cooking and baking that could be for today).

75) Beis Shammai says: you can't stand up a Menorah made of pieces since there is building and demolishing by utensils. Beis Hillel permits since he doesn't hold that there is building and demolishing by utensils. [Tosfos says: even though the Gemara in Shabbos says that everybody agrees that you can't put together a Menorah made of pieces; we're only strict by Shabbos, but we're more lenient by Yom Tov since there is truly no building and demolishing by utensils. Alternatively, here, we're not assembling the pieces, but they're all connected. However, you need to stand up the moveable parts of the Menorah (so that they'll be facing up).]

76) If you add oil to a lamp on Shabbos, you're Chayiv for kindling, and if you remove the oil, you're Chayiv for extinguishing. [Tosfos says: it's not considered as just causing the extinguishing (when it goes out early) which is exempt on Shabbos and permitted on Yom Tov. Rather, as soon as you remove the oil, it dims the flame. Therefore, you may cut a lit candle on Yom Tov with a fire. After all, this logic doesn't apply to it, so it's only causing extinguishing.]

77) Rav allowed Kanva. [Rashi explains: removing the charcoal forming on the top of a wick. Tosfos says that this is on an extinguished wick that you want to make it light better when you relight it. However, to remove it while it's lit is a Gemara later in the fourth Perek.]

78) You can't extinguish a log in order to save it for later [Tosfos says: therefore we should protest women who remove lit wicks from a lamp and place it on the floor (for it to go out), or to cover the flame (to put it out).] However, you could extinguish it in order not to smoke up the whole house or your pot. However, this is only according to R' Yehuda, who holds that the Torah writes “for you,” for all your needs, including what you need to do to facilitate food preparation. However, we follow the Rabanan who only allow 'it,' i.e., food preparation, and they will forbid it. [Tosfos says: although we Paskin like R' Yehuda, but we conclude that we don't Paskin like him to the masses. Alternatively, we only Paskin like him to actually facilitate food preparation, and not other similar actions.]

79) If you have a light in the house and you want to have relations, and you don't have another house to bring the light, or what to make a Mechitza between you and the light, nor do you have any utensil to cover the light; it depends on the above argument between R' Yehuda and the Rabanan if you can extinguish it in order to have relations.

80) Also, if your house is on fire, but it poses no danger to anyone, and you want it as a place to live on Yom Tov, it depends on the above argument between R' Yehuda and the Rabanan if you can extinguish it in order to have relations. The same applies if you can apply eye-medicine when you're not in danger.

81) [Tosfos allows one to light at the end of one day Yom Tov for the next, although you're not lighting for today; but there is still use for the light today since, at the end of the day, the house starts becoming dark.]

82) However, you can have a non-Jew apply the eye-medicine to your eyes, just like we allow any Melacha by a non-Jew for a sick person. This is even true when the Jew helps the application by blinking his eyes, since helping is inconsequential when someone else does the main action.

83) There is an argument in the first Perek whether an egg laid on the first day of Rosh Hashana is forbidden on the second day since they're all one long day, or like Nahrdai, it's permitted since it's very uncommon for them to make an extra day of Elul. Therefore, the same argument applies to applying the eye-medicine on the second day of Rosh Hashana, if we allow it like regular second day Yom Tovs, or not.

84) Beis Shammai says that you can't make a lot of bread, and Beis Hillel allows it. [Rashi explains that Beis Hillel holds like R' Shimon b. Elazar who allows filling up an oven full of bread, even if you don't need them all for Yom Tov in order for it to bake better. However, Tosfos disagrees since, if this would be the explanation, the Gemara would have brought R' Shimon b. Elazar's statement here. Rather, we must say that Beis Shammai forbids making a big loaf a bread, since it doesn't take much effort, you'll might end up baking a lot more than needed for today in order to have it for the weekdays. Therefore, they forced us to have more bother by making small loaves to prevent baking too much.]

85) Although the Lechem Hapanim was a Tefach thick, it doesn't allow us making Matzah that thick (and not to worry that it won't become Chametz). After all, you can't compare it to us who don't necessarily have zealous people making it, and the dough might not be thoroughly worked with, the wood might not be that dried out, the oven is not as hot, or even made of metal the same way they baked by the Lechem Hapanim.

86) R' Gamliel permitted his household to sweep between the beds, but the Chachumim forbid since you might come to smooth out holes in the dirt floor.

87) R' Gamliel allowed burning incense on Yom Tov to smell since he held that it's appreciated by all, and the Chachumim forbid since they hold it's not appreciated by all. However, they agree that you can't burn it below clothes to give them a nice fragrant since it's only improving utensils.

88) Rav forbade smoking fruit over fragrant wood since it's not appreciated by all, so you don't have a Heter to kindle, and extinguish, fire for it. Shmuel allows it since he considers it appreciated by all, but it's just not common for the poor to experience it. This is similar to allowing preparing venison on Yom Tov.

89) R' Yehuda forbade it on coals, (since it's burning and extinguishing), but you can smoke it above a hot shard [Rashi: since there is no extinguishing, and even the burning it causes is not done in a normal way. Tosfos explains: even if it would be normal, it could be that he permits burning on Yom Tov for no good reason. As we see the Yerushalmi says that only the Chachumim, who hold the reason the Torah specified the Melacha of burning to tell us that you bring another Chatos for every Melacha done, holds that burning for no reason is forbidden on Yom Tov. However, according to R' Yossi, who says that the Torah specified burning to say that it's only a Lav, and you don't get the death penalty, burning for no reason is permitted on Yom Tov since it's not a regular Melacha. However, since the Yerushalmi concludes that we shouldn't forbid it, nor permit it; we should avoid doing it. However, it's forbidden on coals because it's extinguishing, and we don't permit it like burning since burning is sometimes used for food preparation, which is not true by extinguishing. (See R'shas who tells us to look what he writes in Shabbos that Tosfos needs this distinction because he held that you don't get stoning, or bring a Chatos, for extinguishing too. However, he brings places in Shas that implies that even R' Yossi would hold you bring a Chatos for extinguishing.)]

Daf 23

90) Rabbah forbids even on shards since it creates a smell in the fruit. Therefore, it's forbidden to place spices on cloth since it will create a smell in the cloth. Although we allow to rub, or break, a spice to bring out its smell, that's because it always had a smell, and you're just adding to it. We only forbid when it creates the smell in the first place.

91) However, Rava permitted even on coals (since he holds that it's appreciated by all). You don't need to worry about burning, extinguishing and creating a smell just like we allow roasting meat on coals and we're not worry about any of them.

92) R' Gamliel allowed roasting a young goat on Pesach night the same way they did it for the Korban Pesach, and the Chachumim forbid since it looks like you're having Kodshim outside the Mikdash.

93) R' Elazar b. Azarya allowed a cow to go out on Shabbos with a strap tied from horn to horn, and the Chachumim forbid.

94) R' Yehuda forbade to comb the back of an animal [Rashi: with a metal comb] because the teeth are thin and it makes a wound. However, he permits if the comb's teeth are thicker and won't make a wound. The Chachumim say that even combing with the thicker-teeth comb is forbidden since you might end up also using the thinner-teeth comb too. R' Elazar b. Azarya held both are permitted since he holds like R' Shimon who says that an unintended Melacha is permitted. The Halacha is like R' Shimon. [Tosfos says: this is only by wooden combs, but it's forbidden to use a metal comb since it will inevitably pull out hairs, (and R' Shimon forbids by a P'sik Reisha.)]

95) R' Elazar b. Azarya permits grinding up pepper in a pepper-mill. The Chachumim forbid.

96) The pepper-mill consists of three components: the bottom receptacle that catches the ground pepper, the middle sifter, and the top metal smasher. They're all are susceptible to Tumah for different reasons. The bottom utensil is susceptible to Tumah because it's a wooden utensil with a receptacle. The middle one is Tamai for being a sifter. [Rashi says: granted that it doesn't have a receptacle, but it's rabbinically susceptible since it's similar to a weave. Tosfos disagrees since weaving is only applicable to linen and wool, and not to wood. Rather, a sifter is susceptible since it has a receptacle since it holds the impurities, as it says in the Yerushalmi.] The top smasher is susceptible, although it doesn't have a receptacle, since it's made of metal.

97) [Tosfos says: if you touch one piece, only that piece is Tamai and not the other piece even when you're using it. This is not similar to what we say in Shabbos that scissors that are made of two pieces, or a plane that's made from two pieces, if you touch one piece, the other one is Tamai (at least when you're using it); since those pieces need the other to function at all, but here, each piece has its own function.]

98) A child's wagon is Tamai Medris [Rashi since the child rides on it. Tosfos says that's too simple. Rather, it's a walker that teaches him how to walk and he leans on it.] You can move it on Shabbos since it's a utensil. One Tanna quoting R' Yehuda holds that he can only walk over utensils, but not over the dirt floor since it might make a trench. Another Tanna, according to R' Yehuda, allows it on the floor since it doesn't usually dig out dirt, but just pushes the dirt into the ground. However, he admits that you can't drag anything else since it might dig out a trench. However, R' Shimon allows dragging any item since an unintended Melacha is permitted as long as it's not a P'sik Reisha.